Monday, May 16, 2011




Submitted to fulfill one of the requirements of Curriculum and Material Development

Lecturer: Yayan Suryana, Drs. M.Pd.


Written by :

Ditha Febrivania (III B)

NPM. 108060053






Curriculum development processes as they have been describe so far in this book are essential resources in helping schools achieve their goals. Quality teaching is achieved not only as a consequence of how well teachers teach but through creating context and work environments that can facilitate good teaching. The following issues will be considered:

* Institutional factors

* Teacher factors

* Teaching factors

* Learners factors

The Institution

The Organizational Culture

The organizational culture of a school refers to the ethos and environment that exist within a school, the kinds of communications and decision and making that take place, and the management and staffing structure they support. Davidson and Tesh suggest that most language programs have features of both of the organic and the mechanistic models, depending on the size of the program and the type of staff working in it. With a large program staffed by experienced and mature professionals, a more organic approach is likely. With smaller programs or programs dependent on less experienced staff, a more mechanistic approach may be needed.

Quality indicators in an institution

Language teaching institutions vary greatly in terms of how they view their educational mission. Some school take seriously the development of a sound curriculum and set of programs, hire the best available teachers. The following characteristics are indicators of the quality of a schoolm or educational instituation (Morris 1994):

1. There are clearly stated educational goals.

2. There is a well-planned, balanced, and organized program that meets the needs of its students.

3. Systematic and identifiable processes exist for determining educational needs in the school and placing them in order of priority.

4. There is a commitment to learning, and an expectation that students will do well.

5. There is a high degree of staff involvement in developing goals and making decision.

6. There is a motivated and cohesive teaching force with good team spirit.

7. Administrators are concerned with the teachers’ professional developmentand are able to make the best use of their skills and experience.

8. The school’s programs are regulary reviewed and progress toward their goals is evaluated.

Not all schools embrace a philosophy of quality, however. Some may be viewed by their owners as little more than business opportunities.

The key dimensions quality and how quality can become a focus in a school or language program.

ð A sense of mission

ð A strategic plan, such as:

* Vission

* Values

* Purpose

* Mission

* Goals

* Strategies

ð Quality assurance mechanisms

ð A sound curriculum

ð Flexible organizational framework

ð Good internal communications

ð Professional treatment of teachers

ð Opportunities for teacher development

The Teaching Context

The last set of factors that affect the quality of teaching in a program relate to the instituation context in which teachers work.

* Size and staff structure

* Equipment

* Support staff

* Teacher work space

* Teacher resource room

* Teaching facilities

* Class size

The Teachers

Many things can be done to create a context for good teaching, but it is teachers themselves who ultimately determine the success of a program. Good teachers can often compensate for deficiencies in the cirriculum, the materials, or te resources they make use of in their teaching.

r Skills and Qualifications

Language teaching institutions vary greatly in the type of teachers they employ. According to Lortie (1975) a profession is characterised by :

* A homogeneous consensual knowledge base

* Restricted entry

* High social status

* Self-regulation

* The legal right to govern daily work affairs

Although Lortie argues that many branches of teaching cannot be classed as a profession by these criteria. Core components of teacher knowledge include the following:

* Practical knowledge

* Content knowledge

* Contextual knowledge

* Pedagogical knowledge

* Personal knowledge

* Reflective knowledge

Focuses on six areas of basic teaching skills:

* Language awareness

* The learner, the teacher, and the teaching/learning context

* Planning for effective teaching of adult learners of english

* Classroom management for teaching

* Resource and materials for teaching

* Professional development

Opportunities to develop these skills can be provided in the following ways:

o Observation of experienced teachers

o Observation of training videos

o Short theory courses

o Practice teaching under the supervision of experienced teachers

o Working with a mentor teacher

Support for Teachers

If teachers are expected to teach well and to develop their teaching skills and knowledge over time, they need ongoing supportt. Yhis may take a number of form:

ó Orientation

ó Adequate materials

ó Course guide

ó Division of responsibilities

ó Further training

ó Teaching release

ó Mentors

ó Feedback

ó Rewards

ó Help lines

ó Review

The Teaching Process

The focus here is on the teaching practices that occur within a program, how these can be characterized, and how quality teaching can be achieved and maintained.

Teaching Model and Principles

The former can be viewed as a teaching model compatible with a mechanistic model of organization design and the latter to the organic model. In language teaching programs, teaching models are often based on particular methods or approaches. For example:

* The communicative approach

* The cooperative learning model

* The process approach

* The whole-language approach

Maintaining Good Teaching

The following are strategies that address this issue.

* Monitoring

* Observation

* Identification and resolution of problems

* Shared planning

* Documentation and sharing of good practices

* Self-study of the program

Evaluating Teaching

If a program seeks to provide quality teaching, it is essential that teachers’ performance be regularly reviewed. An appraisal system may have several different purpose:

* To reward teachers for good performance

* To help identify needs for further training

* To reinforce the need for continous staff development

* To help improve teaching

* To provide a basis contract renewal and promotion

* To demonstrate an interest in teachers’ performance and development

The purpose of the appraisal will determine the type of appraisal that is carried out.

* Developing the appraisal system

* The focus of appraisal, such as:

§ Lesson plans

§ Teacher-made classroom materials

§ Course outlines and handouts

§ Class assignments

§ Participation in profession development activities

* Conducting the appraisal

A teaching appraisal may be carried out by a supervisor, a colleague, the teacher himself or herself, or students.

r Appraisal by a supervisor

r Appraisal by a colleague

r Self-appraisal

r Lesson reports

r Teaching journal

r Audio/video recording

r Student appraisal

The Learning Process

Learning is not the mirror image of teaching. The extent to which teaching achieves its goals will also dependent on how successfully learners have been considered in the planning and delivery process. The following factors may affect how successfully a course is received by learners.

v Understanding of the course

v View of learning

v Learning Style, such as:

v Concrete learners

v Analytical learners

v Communicative learners

v Authority-oriented learners

v Motivation

v Support


  1. Thank you for u I love u :)

  2. thank u, its helping :D