SUMMARY CHAPTER REPORT
PROVIDING FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING
Submitted to fulfill one of the requirements of Curriculum and Material Development
Lecturer: Yayan Suryana, Drs. M.Pd.
Written by :
Ditha Febrivania (III B)
ENGLISH EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT
TEACHING AND EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES FACULTY
SWADAYA GUNUNG JATI UNIVERSITY
PROVIDING FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING
Curriculum development processes as they have been describe so far in this book are essential resources in helping schools achieve their goals. Quality teaching is achieved not only as a consequence of how well teachers teach but through creating context and work environments that can facilitate good teaching. The following issues will be considered:
The Organizational Culture
The organizational culture of a school refers to the ethos and environment that exist within a school, the kinds of communications and decision and making that take place, and the management and staffing structure they support. Davidson and Tesh suggest that most language programs have features of both of the organic and the mechanistic models, depending on the size of the program and the type of staff working in it. With a large program staffed by experienced and mature professionals, a more organic approach is likely. With smaller programs or programs dependent on less experienced staff, a more mechanistic approach may be needed.
Quality indicators in an institution
Language teaching institutions vary greatly in terms of how they view their educational mission. Some school take seriously the development of a sound curriculum and set of programs, hire the best available teachers. The following characteristics are indicators of the quality of a schoolm or educational instituation (Morris 1994):
1. There are clearly stated educational goals.
2. There is a well-planned, balanced, and organized program that meets the needs of its students.
3. Systematic and identifiable processes exist for determining educational needs in the school and placing them in order of priority.
4. There is a commitment to learning, and an expectation that students will do well.
5. There is a high degree of staff involvement in developing goals and making decision.
6. There is a motivated and cohesive teaching force with good team spirit.
7. Administrators are concerned with the teachers’ professional developmentand are able to make the best use of their skills and experience.
8. The school’s programs are regulary reviewed and progress toward their goals is evaluated.
Not all schools embrace a philosophy of quality, however. Some may be viewed by their owners as little more than business opportunities.
The key dimensions quality and how quality can become a focus in a school or language program.
ð A sense of mission
ð A strategic plan, such as:
ð Quality assurance mechanisms
ð A sound curriculum
ð Flexible organizational framework
ð Good internal communications
ð Professional treatment of teachers
ð Opportunities for teacher development
The Teaching Context
The last set of factors that affect the quality of teaching in a program relate to the instituation context in which teachers work.
Size and staff structure
Teacher work space
Teacher resource room
Many things can be done to create a context for good teaching, but it is teachers themselves who ultimately determine the success of a program. Good teachers can often compensate for deficiencies in the cirriculum, the materials, or te resources they make use of in their teaching.
r Skills and Qualifications
Language teaching institutions vary greatly in the type of teachers they employ. According to Lortie (1975) a profession is characterised by :
A homogeneous consensual knowledge base
High social status
The legal right to govern daily work affairs
Although Lortie argues that many branches of teaching cannot be classed as a profession by these criteria. Core components of teacher knowledge include the following:
Focuses on six areas of basic teaching skills:
The learner, the teacher, and the teaching/learning context
Planning for effective teaching of adult learners of english
Classroom management for teaching
Resource and materials for teaching
Opportunities to develop these skills can be provided in the following ways:
o Observation of experienced teachers
o Observation of training videos
o Short theory courses
o Practice teaching under the supervision of experienced teachers
o Working with a mentor teacher
Support for Teachers
If teachers are expected to teach well and to develop their teaching skills and knowledge over time, they need ongoing supportt. Yhis may take a number of form:
ó Adequate materials
ó Course guide
ó Division of responsibilities
ó Further training
ó Teaching release
ó Help lines
The Teaching Process
The focus here is on the teaching practices that occur within a program, how these can be characterized, and how quality teaching can be achieved and maintained.
Teaching Model and Principles
The former can be viewed as a teaching model compatible with a mechanistic model of organization design and the latter to the organic model. In language teaching programs, teaching models are often based on particular methods or approaches. For example:
The communicative approach
The cooperative learning model
The process approach
The whole-language approach
Maintaining Good Teaching
The following are strategies that address this issue.
Identification and resolution of problems
Documentation and sharing of good practices
Self-study of the program
If a program seeks to provide quality teaching, it is essential that teachers’ performance be regularly reviewed. An appraisal system may have several different purpose:
To reward teachers for good performance
To help identify needs for further training
To reinforce the need for continous staff development
To help improve teaching
To provide a basis contract renewal and promotion
To demonstrate an interest in teachers’ performance and development
The purpose of the appraisal will determine the type of appraisal that is carried out.
Developing the appraisal system
The focus of appraisal, such as:
§ Lesson plans
§ Teacher-made classroom materials
§ Course outlines and handouts
§ Class assignments
§ Participation in profession development activities
Conducting the appraisal
A teaching appraisal may be carried out by a supervisor, a colleague, the teacher himself or herself, or students.
r Appraisal by a supervisor
r Appraisal by a colleague
r Lesson reports
r Teaching journal
r Audio/video recording
r Student appraisal
The Learning Process
Learning is not the mirror image of teaching. The extent to which teaching achieves its goals will also dependent on how successfully learners have been considered in the planning and delivery process. The following factors may affect how successfully a course is received by learners.
v Understanding of the course
v View of learning
v Learning Style, such as:
v Concrete learners
v Analytical learners
v Communicative learners
v Authority-oriented learners